7 Most Common types of Blood Tests

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By Kaleem Ullah

Getting tested at routine intervals can help you recognize how your body changes over time and enable you to make informed health decisions. Blood tests provide an important picture of your overall health and well-being. These investigations help in the early detection of an illness, allowing it to be treated before it progresses to a more severe level. They can also assist you in tracking how effectively your body responds to various medical treatments.

Here are some of the common Blood tests:

  1. Complete Blood Count (Hemogram)

A routine complete blood count test evaluates the levels of several components of every major cell in your blood, such as:

  • Red blood cells (RBCs)
  • White blood cells (WBCs)
  • Platelets
  • Hemoglobin (protein in RBCs)
  • Hematocrit
  • Mean corpuscular volume

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  1. Basic Metabolic Panel

The Basic Metabolic Panel (BMP) measures the levels of eight compounds in the blood:

  • Calcium
  • Glucose
  • Sodium
  • Potassium
  • Bicarbonate
  • Chloride
  • Blood Urea Nitrogen (Bun)
  • Creatinine

Depending on the doctor’s instructions and the type of the test, you may be required to fast for at least 8 hours before having your blood collected.

Abnormal results may indicate:

  • Kidney Disease
  • Diabetes
  • Hormone Imbalances

The doctor can prescribe more tests to confirm a diagnosis.

  1. Thyroid Panel

A thyroid panel (thyroid function testing), assesses how well your thyroid produces and responds to particular hormones. It includes the following:

  • Triiodothyronine (T3): This hormone in combination with T4 regulates the body temperature and heart rate.
  • Thyroxine (T4): This hormone regulates metabolism along with T3.
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH): This hormone regulates the amount of hormones released by your thyroid.

Abnormal levels of these hormones can cause a variety of problems, including low protein levels, thyroid growth issues, and abnormal levels of sex hormones such as testosterone or oestrogen.

  1. Lipid Panel

This test measures the levels of several forms of cholesterol and fats in the blood. It usually includes:

  • HDL or “good” cholesterol
  • LDL or “bad” cholesterol
  • Triglycerides
  • Total cholesterol

This panel is used to determine the risk of heart disease, particularly in the elderly. This test’s results can also affect and improve your lifestyle choices.

  1. Cardiac Biomarkers

Enzymes are proteins that help the body’s chemical processes, such as digestion and blood clotting. They perform a variety of critical tasks throughout the body. 

Common enzymes tested includes:

  • Creatine Kinase (CK): This enzyme is found largely in the brain, heart, and skeletal muscle. When muscles are damaged, CK leaks into the bloodstream in increasing volumes.
  • Creatine Kinase-MB (CK-MB): These enzymes are found in your heart and can increase in the blood after a heart attack or other heart injury.
  • Troponin: The heart contains these enzymes and they frequently rise in the blood after a heart attack or other type of heart injury.
  1. Coagulation Panel

Coagulation tests assess how well the blood clots and how long it takes to clot. Prothrombin time (PT) and fibrinogen activity tests are two examples.

Clotting is an essential process that helps in the stoppage of bleeding after a cut or trauma. A clot in a vein or artery, on the other hand, can be fatal since it can cut off blood supply to the brain, heart, or lungs and can result in a heart attack.

The results of a coagulation test vary depending on your health and any underlying diseases that may affect clotting. The results of this test can be used to diagnose:

  • Leukemia
  • Excessive Bleeding (Hemophilia)
  • Thrombosis
  • Liver Conditions
  • Vitamin K Deficiency
  1. DHEA-Sulfate Serum Test

The adrenal glands produce the dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) hormone. This test determines whether the value is too high or too low.

DHEA helps in the development of features such as body hair growth in men, therefore low amounts are regarded as abnormal. High levels in women can result in the development of typically male features such as abundant body hair, thus low levels are normal.

Low levels may be caused by:

  • Addison’s disease
  • Adrenal dysfunction
  • Hypopituitarism

High levels in both men and women can be caused by:

  • Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia
  • Malignant Tumor on The Adrenal Gland
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (Pcos)
  • Ovarian Tumor

Prevention is better than cure! Certain diseases can be prevented from developing to a more severe form if detected early. However, these lab tests are frequently insufficient to provide a final diagnosis. Numerous blood tests are conducted to detect any abnormalities, which are then connected with additional investigations with the help of healthcare providers to establish a final diagnosis.

The majority of blood tests need fasting for 8–12 hours to ensure that the results are devoid of any factors such as vitamins, proteins, and other substances, ensuring that your test results are as accurate as possible. Routine blood testing must be done at least once a year. Always seek the opinion of the doctor to determine whether more tests are required to ensure your optimal health.